Tuesday, February 21, 2017

10 Rupee coin is valid

RBI dispels rumours of fake Rs.10 coins in circulation

It has been reported that some less-informed or uninformed persons who suspect the genuineness of such coins are creating doubts in the minds of ordinary people.

Dispelling rumours of fake Rs.10 coin in circulation, RBI long back has already asked people not to give credence to such canards and continue to accept these coins as legal tender in all their transactions without any hesitation. It has been reported that some less-informed or uninformed persons who suspect the genuineness of such coins are creating doubts in the minds of ordinary people including traders, shopkeepers, etc, impeding the circulation of these coins in certain pockets of the country causing avoidable confusion, RBI said in a statement.
“The Reserve Bank has advised members of the public not to give credence to such ill-informed notions and ignore them and continue to accept these coins as legal tender in all their transactions without any hesitation,” it said. According to RBI as coins remain in circulation for longer periods, it is quite possible that coins of different designs and even shapes are circulating at the same time.
One such change is introduction of ‘Rupee symbol’ in coins in July 2011, it said. An instance of this is the Rs.10 coin with rupee symbol and the same denomination coin without rupee symbol, it said, “Adding both of them are legal tender and equally good for transactions, though they may look a little different”.
“The Reserve Bank has advised members of the public not to give credence to such ill-informed notions and ignore them and continue to accept these coins as legal tender in all their transactions without any hesitation,” it said. According to RBI as coins remain in circulation for longer periods, it is quite possible that coins of different designs and even shapes are circulating at the same time.
One such change is introduction of ‘Rupee symbol’ in coins in July 2011, it said. An instance of this is the Rs.10 coin with rupee symbol and the same denomination coin without rupee symbol, it said,
It further said RBI puts into circulation coins minted by the Government of India and these have distinctive features. Coins in new denominations to meet transaction needs of public and coins in new designs to reflect various themes – economic, social and cultural – are introduced from time to time, it added.

Saturday, February 18, 2017

Anna Song

C.N. Annadurai
Born On: September 15, 1909
Born In: Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu
Died On: February 3, 1969
Career: Politician, Writer
Nationality: Indian
Popularly known as Anna or Arignar Anna, Conjeevaram Natarajan Annadurai was the first Dravidian and first non-Congress leader to become the Chief Minister of the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Despite being born in a middle class family, Annadurai rose to become a school teacher and journalist before switching into hard-core politics. After working for the Dravidian party, Dravidar Kazhagam, he gathered his supporters and gave birth to his own party, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). Such was the influence of Anna in the political world that a party was then launched in his name as Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) by M.G. Ramachandran in 1972 posthumously. With his election as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, Anna rose to extreme popularity amongst ordinary people. He is regarded as one of the charismatic and forceful political leaders of modern India. Besides, he gained fame as an acclaimed orator, Tamil and English litterateur, and a stage actor.

Early Life
C.N. Annadurai was born to Natarajan and Bangaru Ammal, in Conjeevaram (now called Kanchipuram) in Tamil Nadu. He was born in a middle-class weaver family belonging to Sengunta Mudaliar caste. He was brought up by his sister Rajamani Ammal. Annadurai attained his formal education from Pachaiyappa's High School in Chennai, but left his studies midway due to financial problems and worked as a clerk in Kanchipuram municipal office to help with the family finances. He later took admission in Pachaiyappa's College for his graduation. However, he was married off with Rani in 1930 at the age of 21 while he was still a student. In 1934, he completed his B.A. (Hons) degree and later achieved his M.A. degree in economics and politics from the same college. For a short period, he earned his living as an English teacher in Pachaiyappa's High school but left to join journalism and politics.

Entry into Politics
Annadurai was keen on joining politics. With his deep interest in working for the conditions of the poor and down-trodden, his ambition firmed as he was highly influenced by two Communist leaders, M. Singaravelu and C. Basudev. On his first meeting with Periyar E.V. Ramasami in 1934 at a youth conference at Tirupur in Coimbatore district, he was instantly attracted towards him. Even after his split with Periyar on the launch of his own party DMK in 1949, he continued to praise him in public as his one and only leader. He joined the Justice Party, which was formed in 1917 by non-Brahmin elites, in 1935. When he entered the party, the president was Periyar E.V. Ramasami. The party ran a magazine where Annadurai served as the sub-editor. The party was in power till 1937 after it was defeated by Indian National Congress. Thereafter, Annadurai became the editor of Viduthalai, which means freedom in English, and was even associated with a Tamil weekly paper "Kudi Arusu". In 1942, he began his own Tamil journal titled "Dravida Nadu". Periyar renamed the Justice Party as Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944 and bid adieu to contesting in the elections.

Establishment of DMK
During India's struggle for independence, the movement was dominated by Indian National Congress that was led by Brahmins. As such, Periyar feared that independent India would be ruled under the government of Brahmins and North Indians. With this, Periyar objected the move and declared August 15, 1947 as a day of mourning. As such, Periyar witnessed opposition from his supporters and saw that the cause of demand for independence from British rule was a national cause and not just of Aryan North. This triggered a cold war between Annadurai and Periyar. Further when Periyar refused to stand in the democratic elections, Annadurai walked off the meeting in 1948. Periyar's marriage to Maniammai, who was 40 years younger than him, caused the final rift between him and Annadurai, who, in turn, walked out of his party and gave birth to his own party known as Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) in 1949, in partnership with Periyar's nephew, E.V.K. Sampath. Initially DMK focused on urban centers and surrounding areas, but with the party's emphasis shifting on to urban lower, lower middle, working classes, students, Dalits, and lower castes, DMK gained rapid recognition and immense support.

Dravida Nadu
While working for "Dravida Nadu" under Periyar at the time of Dravida Kazhagam, Annadurai supported the former for forming an independent state under the name Dravida Nadu. This thought stayed alive during the initial days of DMK as well. Sampath, who had left Periyar and joined Annadurai, still opposed the fact and considered this demand an unrealistic goal. Later, when Annadurai accepted film stars in his party, Sampath suffered differences between him and other leaders supporting the Dravida Nadu, and hence, left DMK to form his own party, the Tamil Nationalist Party in 1961. But when the Indian government separated Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam speaking regions from Madras Presidency, Annadurai and his party changed the call for Dravida Nadu into independent Tamil Nadu for Tamil speaking regions. However, when the Sixteenth Amendment was initialized that banned any party from contesting in elections; Annadurai was one of the members present in the Parliament of India but could not stop from the amendment being passed.

Apart from standing for the formation of a separate Tamil-speaking region, Annadurai was actively involved with other protests throughout his political career. When Motilal Nehru recommended Hindi for use as an official language in 1928, people and politicians of Tamil Nadu strongly opposed considering that they would be regarded as second-class citizens, since Hindi was major language of North Indians. This was just the beginning as the Congress party headed by C. Rajagopalachari in Madras Presidency suggested the use of Hindi as a compulsory language in schools in 1938. This was highly objected by Tamil leaders, including Annadurai who, along with poet Bharathidasan, held demonstrations against the cause. He even participated in the first Anti-Hindi imposition conference that was held in Kanchipuram on February 27, 1938. With no positive response and immense opposition, the Madras Presidency withdrew from the cause in 1940.

In 1950, when India became a republic, the constitution declared Hindi language to gain official status after 15 years in 1965. This was, as expected, not accepted by the Tamils. As such, Annadurai organized an open-air conference against Hindi imposition at Kodambakkam in Chennai in August 1960. With the rise in the opposition, Jawaharlal Nehru ensured that English would be the official language of India, as long as non-Hindi speaking people wish. However, when no amendment was made in the constitution in 1965, Annadurai declared 26th January, 1955, the 15th Republic Day of India, as the day of mourning. He replaced the protest slogans with "Down with Hindi; Long live the Republic". Though the protest initially broke out in Madurai, it spread throughout the state within days. With violence increasing to its height, Annadurai asked the students to call off the protest, but DMK leaders like Karunanidhi continued the violence. Annadurai was even arrested for inducing the agitation. Though DMK was not personally responsible for instigating the agitation, it was due to this that DMK won the elections in 1967 with Annadurai becoming the Chief Minister of Madras State.

Tenure as a Chief Minister
In 1967 elections, the opposition party won nine states over Congress, but Madras was the only state where a single non-Congress party attained majority. Annadurai became the Chief Minister of Madras in February 1967 and legalized self-respect marriages wherein one did not require a Brahmin to preside with the marriage ceremony. Self-respect marriage was an idea conceptualized by Periyar, who considered conventional marriages as an excuse for bribing dowry. It was during Annadurai's tenure as the Chief Minister that the Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu. He even introduced the two language policy against the three language formula prevailing in the neighboring states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala. He organized the Second World Tamil Conference on January 3, 1968. To mark this conference, the government released a commemorative stamp but it contained Hindi while Annadurai insisted on printing Tamil. He issued an order to remove all pictures of gods and religious symbols from public offices and buildings. On his visit to Yale University in April-May 1968, he was awarded with the Chubb Fellowship and became the first non-American to receive this honor. Later in the same year, he was conferred upon with an honorary doctorate from Annamalai University.

Literary Career
Apart from his political career, Annadurai was very much involved into writing and filming as well. Talking about his literary career, he was regarded as one of the best Tamil orators during his time. With his spoken and written language, he managed to develop a unique style. He penned several novels, short stories, and plays that revolved around politics. While working for Dravidar Kazhagam, he acted in some of his own plays. His notable works include Annavin Sattasabai Sorpolivukal (Anna's speeches at the state legislative, 1960), Ilatchiya varalaru (History of Principles, 1948), Valkkaip puyal (Storm of life, 1948), Rankon rata (Radha from Rangon), Kambarasam, Kapothipura kathal (Love in the city of Blind), Parvathy B.A., Kalinga Rani (Queen of Kalinga), and Pavayin payanam (Travels of a young lady).

Film Career
Annadurai wrote for movies also. His first movie was 1948 "Nallathambi" (Good Brother) starring N.S. Krishnan revolving around cooperative farming and abolition of zamindari system. He earned Rs. 12,000 from this project, a large amount at that time. His novels "Velaikaari" (Servant Maid, 1949) and "Or Iravu" were culminated into movies. His career in films proved to be a boon for him as he was supported by several stage and cine stars, such as D.V. Narayanaswamy, K.R. Ramasamy, N.S. Krishnan, S.S. Rajendran, Sivaji Ganesan, and M.G. Ramachandran. His other works that were converted into movies by the same name are Panathottam (1963), Valiba virundhu (1967), Kumarikottam (1971), Rajapart Rangadurai (1973), Needhi devan mayakkam (1982).

Annadurai served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for just two years as he died on February 3, 1969. Though he was suffering from cancer, he managed to keep himself in a healthy condition. It was his tobacco chewing habit that had led to the worsening of his condition. His funeral was attended by a recorded 15 million people, the highest till date as recorded in The Guinness Book of Records. His remains were buried in the northern end of Marina Beach, now known as Anna Square.

With the split of DMK in 1972 by actor M.G. Ramachandran, the rebel fragment formed another party and renamed it as All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). A residential neighborhood in Chennai is named after Annadurai and is called Anna Nagar. The Anna University, offering high education in engineering, technology, and applied sciences, founded in 1978 was also named after Annadurai. The current head office of DMK, built in 1987, was a tribute to Annadurai with the name Anna Arivalayam. The previously known Mount Road, a major road in Chennai, was renamed as Anna Salai in his honor and a statue was also set up there. Annadurai was listed as one of the "Top 100 people who shaped India by thought, action, art, culture, and spirit" by India Today magazine. Anna Centenary Library was established in Chennai in 2010 as a tribute to Annadurai.

Distinguished Works
Komalathin Kobam, 1939
Kalingarani, 1942
Parvathi B.A, 1943
Chandrodhayam, 1943
Sivaji kanda indhu samrajyam, 1945
Velaikaari, 1946
Kumari kottam, 1946
Nallathambi, 1948
Or iravu, 1948
Sorgavasal, 1953
Kumari Surya, 1955
Thazhumbukal, 1965
Inba oli, 1970

Notable Films
Nallathambi, 1949
Velaikaari, 1949
Or Iravu, 1951
Rangoon Radha, 1956
Panathottam, 1963)
Valiba virundhu, 1967
Kumarikottam, 1971
Rajapart Rangadurai, 1973
Needhi devan mayakkam, 1982

1909: Was born in Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu
1930: Married Rani
1934: Completed bachelor's degree from Pachaiyappa's College, Chennai
1935: Joined Justice Party
1938: Participated in the first Anti-Hindi imposition conference in Kanchipuram
1944: Justice Party was renamed as Dravidar Kazhagam
1948: Made first movie "Nallathambi"
1949: Founded Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)
1962: Elected to Rajya Sabha
1965: Opposed against Hindi being declared as the official language
1967: Elected as the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency
1968: Received Chubb Fellowship from Yale University
1969: Madras state was renamed as Tamil Nadu
1969: Died on February 3 in Chennai aged 59
1972: ADMK (Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam) was formed
1978: Anna University was founded in his honor
1987: DMK's head office Anna Arivalayam was built
2010: Anna Centenary Library was established in Chennai

Thursday, February 16, 2017

Thirukkural 1080

 திருக்குறள் 1080
எற்றிற் குரியர் கயவரொன் றுற்றக்கால்
விற்றற் குரியர் விரைந்து.

ஒரு துன்பம் வரும்போது அதிலிருந்து தப்பித்துக் கொள்ள, தம்மையே பிறரிடம் விற்றுவிடுகிற தகுதிதான் கயவர்களுக்குரிய தகுதியாகும்.

Etrir Kuriyar Kayavarondru Utrakkaal Vitrarku Uriyar Viraindhu

For what is base man fit, if griefs assail? Himself to offer, there and then, for sale!

Meaning in English:

The base will hasten to sell themselves as soon as a calamity has befallen them. For what else are they fitted?

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

Thirukkural 740

ஆங்கமை வெய்தியக் கண்ணும் பயமின்றே
வேந்தமை வில்லாத நாடு.

--திருக்குறள் 740 அதிகாரம் நாடு

மு. வரதராசன் உரை:
நல்ல அரசன் பொருந்தாத நாடு, மேற்சொன்ன நன்மைகள் எல்லாம் அமைந்திருந்த போதிலும் அவற்றால் பயன் இல்லாமற் போகும்.

மு. கருணாநிதி உரை:
நல்ல அரசு அமையாத நாட்டில் எல்லாவித வளங்களும் இருந்தாலும் எந்தப் பயனும் இல்லாமற் போகும்.

சாலமன் பாப்பையா உரை:
மேலே சொல்லப்பட்ட எல்லாம் இருந்தாலும் குடிமக்கள் மீது அன்பு இல்லாத அரசு அமைந்துவிட்டால் அதனால் ஒரு நன்மையும் இல்லை.

மணக்குடவர் உரை:
மேற்கூறியவற்றால் எல்லாம் அமைந்ததாயினும் பயனில்லையாம்; வேந்தனது அமைதியை உடைத்தல்லாத நாடு. இதுநாட்டுக்கு அரசனும் பண்புடையனாகல் வேண்டுமென்றது.

பரிமேலழகர் உரை:
வேந்து அமைவு இல்லாத நாடு - வேந்தனோடு மேவுதல் இல்லாத நாடு; ஆங்கு அமைவு எய்தியக் கண்ணும் பயம் இன்றே - மேற்சொல்லிய குணங்கள் எல்லாவற்றினும் நிறைந்திருந்ததாயினும், அவற்றால் பயனுடைத்தன்று. (வேந்து அமைவு எனவே, குடிகள் அவன்மாட்டு அன்புடையராதலும்,அவன்தான் இவர்மாட்டு அருளுடையனாதலும் அடங்கின. அவைஇல்வழி வாழ்வோர் இன்மையின், அவற்றால் பயனின்றாயிற்று. இவைஇரண்டு பாட்டானும் அதன் குற்றம் கூறப்பட்டது).

Though blest with all these varied gifts' increase,
A land gains nought that is not with its king at peace.


Although in possession of all the above mentioned excellences, these are indeed of no use to a country, in the absence of harmony between the sovereign and the subjects.

Monday, February 13, 2017

Thirukkural 700

குறள் 700:
பழையம் எனக்கருதிப் பண்பல்ல செய்யும்
கெழுதகைமை கேடு தரும்.

கலைஞர் மு.கருணாநிதி உரை:
நெடுங்காலமாக நெருங்கிப் பழகுகிற காரணத்தினாலேயே தகாத செயல்களைச் செய்திட உரிமை எடுத்துக்கொள்வது கேடாகவே முடியும்.

மு.வரதராசனார் உரை:
யாம் அரசர்க்கு பழைமையானவராய் உள்ளோம் எனக்கருதித் தகுதி அல்லாதவற்றைச் செய்யும் உரிமை கேட்டைத்தரும்.

சாலமன் பாப்பையா உரை:
ஆட்சியாளருடன் நமக்கு நீண்ட நாள் பழக்கம் உண்டு என்று எண்ணித் தீய செயல்களைச் செய்யும் மனஉரிமை ஒருவருக்குக் கெடுதியையே தரும்.

பரிமேலழகர் உரை:
பழையம் எனக்கருதிப் பண்பு அல்ல செய்யும் கெழுதகைமை - அரசனுக்கு யாம் பழையம் எனக் கருதித் தமக்கு இயல்பு அல்லாதவற்றைச் செய்யும் உரிமை; கேடு தரும் - அமைச்சர்க்குக் கேட்டினைப் பயக்கும். (அவன் பொறாது செறும் பொழுதின், அப்பழைமை நோக்கிக் கண்ணோடாது உயிரை வெளவுதலான், அவன் வேண்டாதன செய்தற்கு ஏதுவாய கெழுதகைமை கேடு தரும் என்றார். இவை மூன்று பாட்டானும், பொறுப்பர் என்று அரசர் வெறுப்பன செய்யற்க என்பது கூறப்பட்டது.).

மணக்குடவர் உரை:
யாம் பழைமையுடையோ மென்று கருதி இயல்பல்லாதனவற்றைச் செய்யும் நட்பின்தகைமை தமக்குக் கேட்டைத்தரும் இது பின் பகையானவற்றைத் தவிரல் வேண்டும்மென்றது.

Who think 'We're ancient friends' and do unseemly things;
To these familiarities sure ruin brings.


The (foolish) claim with which a minister does unbecoming acts because of his (long) familiarity (with the king) will ensure his ruin.

Thirukkural 699

குறள் 699:
கொளப்பட்டேம் என்றெண்ணிக் கொள்ளாத செய்யார்
துளக்கற்ற காட்சி யவர்.

கலைஞர் மு.கருணாநிதி உரை:
ஆட்சியால் நாம் ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளப்பட்டவராயிற்றே என்ற துணிவில், ஏற்றுகொள்ள முடியாத காரியங்களைத் தெளிந்த அறிவுடையவர்கள் செய்ய மாட்டார்கள்.

மு.வரதராசனார் உரை:
அசைவற்ற தெளிந்த அறிவினை உடையவர் யாம் அரசரால் விரும்பப்பட்டோம் என்று எண்ணி அவர் விரும்பாதவற்றைச் செய்யமாட்டார்.

சாலமன் பாப்பையா உரை:
சலனம் அற்ற அறிவை உடையவர்கள், தாம் ஆட்சியாளரால் மிகவும் மரியாதைக்கு உரியவர்கள் என்று எண்ணி, ஆட்சியாளர் விரும்பாதவற்றைச் செய்யமாட்டார்.

பரிமேலழகர் உரை:
கொளப்பட்டேம் என்று எண்ணிக் கொள்ளாத செய்யார் - அரசனால் யாம்நன்கு மதிக்கப்பட்டேம் என்று கருதி அவன் விரும்பாதவற்றைச் செய்யார்; துளக்கு அற்ற காட்சியவர் - நிலைபெற்ற அறிவினையுடையார். (கொள்ளாதன செய்து அழிவு எய்துவார் கொளப்பாட்டிற்குப்பின் தம்மை வேறொருவராகக் கருதுவர் ஆகலின், முன்னையராகவே கருதி அஞ்சியொழுகுவாரைத் 'துளக்கு அற்ற காட்சியவர்' என்றார்).

மணக்குடவர் உரை:
யாம் அரசனாலே கைக்கொள்ளப்பட்டோமென்று நினைத்து அவன் நெஞ்சிற் கொள்ளாதன செய்யார், அசைவற்ற தௌ¤வுடையார். இஃது அரசன் நெஞ்சிற்குப் பொருந்தினவை செய்ய வேண்டுமென்றது.

'We've gained his grace, boots nought what graceless acts we do',
So deem not sages who the changeless vision view.


Those whose judgement is firm will not do what is disagreeable (to the sovereign) saying (within themselves) "We are esteemed by the king".

Sunday, February 12, 2017

Tirukkural 754

அறன்ஈனும் இன்பமும் ஈனும் திறனறிந்து
தீதின்றி வந்த பொருள்.

-குறள்  754

திருவள்ளுவரின் திருக்குறள், பொருட்பால், அதிகாரம்: பொருள்செயல்வகை
Chapter: Way of Accumulating Wealth

சேர்க்கும் திறம் அறிந்து தீமை ஒன்றும் இல்லாமல், சேர்க்கப் பட்டுவந்த பொருள் ஒருவனுக்கு அறத்தையும் இன்பத்தையும் கொடுக்கும்.


நேரிய வழி அறிந்து  தீமை ஏதும் செய்யாமல் சம்பாதிக்கப்பட்ட பணம் அறத்தையும் இன்பத்தையும் தரும்.

English Couplet 754:
Their wealth, who blameless means can use aright,
Is source of virtue and of choice delight.

Couplet Explanation:
The wealth acquired with a knowledge of the proper means and without foul practices will yield virtue and happiness.

Transliteration (Tamil to English):
aran-eenum inpamum eenum thiRanaRindhu

theedhindri vandha poruL

Saturday, February 11, 2017

Who is Minister?

Thirukkural 633

பிரித்தலும் பேணிக் கொளலும் பிரிந்தார்ப்
பொருத்தலும் வல்ல தமைச்சு.

அதிகாரம்: அமைச்சு, குறள் இயல்: அமைச்சியல், குறள் பால்: பொருட்பால்
குறள் விளக்கம்
பகைவர்ககு துணையானவரைப் பிரித்தலும், தம்மிடம் உள்ளவரைக் காத்தலும், பிரிந்து கொண்டவரை மீண்டும் சேர்த்துக்கொள்ளலும் வல்லவன் அமைச்சன்.
Piriththalum Penik Kolalum Pirindhaarp Poruththalum Valla Thamaichchu
A minister is he whose power can foes divide, Attach more firmly friends, of severed ones can heal the breaches wide.
Meaning in English:

The minister is one who can effect discord (among foes), maintain the good-will of his friends and restore to friendship those who have seceded (from him).

Wednesday, February 8, 2017

Can Mangalsutra Protect Husband?

Mangal sutra (Mangal means "holy, auspicious". Sutra means "thread") is a necklace that a Hindu groom ties around the bride's neck in marriage ceremony called Mangalya Dharanam ("wearing the auspicious"). It identifies her as a married woman.

Know About Palani Murugan Temple

      Palani has been mentioned in the Tamil Sangam Literature as Podhini, which came to be called as Palani later, according to the historions. In Thirumurukatruppadai (a Sangam Literature) Palani has been mentioned as the 3rd PadaiVeedu. This was the southern end of the Kongu Nadu and edicts refer to this place as Vaiyapuri Nadu, which was ruled by king Vaiyapuri Kopperumbaegan. Many Siddhas are said to have lived in this region. The idol of Palani Andavar is said to have been made of Navapashanam (a combination of Veeram, Pooram, Rasam, Jathilingam, Kandagam, Gauri Pasanam, Vellai Pasanam, Mridharsingh, Silasat), by a siddhar called Bhogar. It is also claimed by many that the materials of abhishegam like milk, sandalpaste, etc., attain medicinal properties on being poured over Lord Palaniandavars idol and they have cured many diseases, when taken by the patients. It is a speciality of Palani.
Palani Sthalapuranam
      The History of Palani written by Balasubramania Kavirayar speaks about the glory of this place. This contains 23 chapters in 987 verses, and was written in 1628AD. The Temple Office has released a new and revised book in 1998.
      The story of Lord Muruga, why He left Kailasa and came to Palani, and how Palani got its name. Lord Siva and Goddess Parvathi are seated atop Mount Kailas. One day, Lord Narada comes and gifts them a celestial fruit. The two sons of Lord Siva, namely Ganapathy and Murugan, demand the entire fruit for each of them. Siva announces a competition and promises to give the fruit to the one who wins the test. The condition is they should go round the world and reach back first. Both agree to it and Ganapathy makes a circumambulation of His parents, reaches first, and wins the fruit. Murugan who goes on his peacock around the world reaches later and finds that Ganapathy has won the prize. He therefore gets disappointed and, renouncing the world, stands atop the Palani Hill. Siva and Parvathi come to Palani and pacifies Murugan telling him Muruga, you are yourself a divine fruit then why do you need a fruit? Fruit, in Tamil, is called Pazham. Hence this place came to be called as Palani, as Muruga was addressed as Palam Nee. Some say that Palani got its name from Pazhanam (meaning paddy fields)

Kavadi (How kavadi tradition came to Palani?):
      Sage Agastya wanted to take two hills — Sivagiri and Sakthigiri to his abode in the South and commissioned his disciple Idumban to carry them. Idumban bore the hills slung across his shoulders, in the form of a kavadi one on either side. When he was fatigued, he placed the kavadi near Palani to take rest. At this stage, Subrahmanya or Muruga had been outwitted in a contest for going round the world. Ganapati had won the prized fruit (pomegranate or mango) by simply going round His parents. Long after, this, Subrahmanya came sweating on His peacock to find that the prize had already been given away. In anger, the frustrated child left the divine parents and came down to Tiru Avinankudi at the Adivaram (pronounced Adivâram. It means foot of the Sivagiri Hill). Siva pacified Him by saying that He (Subrahmanya) Himself was the fruit (pazham) of all wisdom and knowledge neeyou. Hence the place was called 'Pazham Nee' or Palani.
      Later, He withdrew to the hill and settled there as a recluse in peace and solitude. When Idumban resumed his journey, he could not lift the hill. Muruga had made it impossible for Idumban to make it. In the fierce battle that ensued, Idumban was killed but was later on restored to life. Idumban prayed that: whosoever carried on his shoulders the Kavadi, signifying the two hills and visited the temple on a vow, should be blessed and he should be given the privilege of standing sentinel at the entrance to the hill. Hence we have the Idumban shrine halfway up the hill where every pilgrim is expected to offer obeisance to Idumban before entering the temple of Dandâyudhapani. Since then, pilgrims to Palani bring their offerings on their shoulders in a kavadi. The custom has spread from Palani to all Muruga shrines worldwide.

Temple (An Oceanic Life Story):
       Bogar is a Siddhar, he is considered as one of the 18 siddhars born in the world. According to epigraphical sources and his book Bogar Seven thousand his period is around 3000 B.C. Bogar born at India and visited China in search of truth of life, he gained knowledge in medicine, astrology, spritiuality, yoga etc. Bogar anticipating that in due course of period, human beings will suffer from large number of disease. As an expert in medicine he used 4448 rare herbs and made 9 poisonous medicine, mixing these 9 poisons into one needs great knowledege and skill, to make a Master Medicine ( One medicine to cure all disease ). Thirumoolar also discuss one such Master Medicine in his book Thiru Mandiram. With the consultation of Agasthiar (Father of Ayurvedic Medicine) and other siddhars Bogar mixed the 9 poisons ( Nava Bashanam ) and made the Master Medicine in the form of Lord Murugan which is currently worshiped at Palani Murugan temple. There is a place near Palani Hill called Thanasiappan Temple which is the place where Bogar mixed the Nava Bashanam and made the Murugan idol.
      Bogar and others then decided that by using the milk and panchamirtham ( a sweet recipe ) poured on the idol, one can extract the medicine from the idol. The milk and panchamritham then becomes medicine to cure disease. After installing Lord Murugan Navabashana idol at the Palani Hill, Bogar used to worship it with milk abishegam (pouring milk on the idol ) and panchamirtha abishegam ( pouring panchamirtham on the idol ). His disciple Pulipani siddhar then took over the job of Lord Murugan pooja after Bogar went into Nirvigalpa Samadhi - the highest samadhi stage where the Mind dissolves with Matter and Energy.
      Bogar Samadhi is inside Palani Murugan temple at Palani Hill. Actually Bogar himself constructed his samadhi exactly under the Lord Murugan Navabasha idol and went into Nirvigalpa Samadhi there. The entrance to his samadhi is a cave like structure, now also worship for this great siddhar is conducted at this entrance where he is last seen by his disciples which is at the Palani temple.

Navapashanam (The icon made by siddha Bhogar by combining nine poisonous substances):
      He deity of Palani is known as Dandayudhapani Swami, the Lord having the Staff in his Hand. The deity at the sanctum sanctorum is made out of an amalgam of nine minerals popularly called Navapashanam. Some people say it is a combination of medicinal herbs. It consits of the following items : Veeram, Pooram, Rasam, Jathilingam, Kandagam, Gauri Pasanam, Vellai Pasanam, Mridharsingh, Silasat. The deity is in a standing position with a baton in his hand. He has the look of a person who has renounced all worldly pomp. He has just a loincloth besides the baton. He is a mute messenger of the great precept 'Renounce all to reach Me'. The icon is unique in the whole world. It was made by siddha Bhogar by combining nine poisonous substances (Navapashanam). Murugan signifies beauty and Lord Murugan of Kurinji land is the god of Beauty and Youth

Palani-Geoghraphical Location:
       India is a land of spirituality, with the vast and fertile Ganges plateau. Spanning 3214 km south-north and 2933 km east- west, it has an area of 32,80483sq.km.The beautiful state of Tamil Nadu is situated is the Southern region of India, with Chennai as its Capital. Palani town is 472 km away from Chennai. It has area of 6.63Sq.km and is located at 10.3 N and 77.3 E of the meridian. It is about 309-323 m above sea level, and has a rainfall of 560mm annually. Getting rain by the North-East Monsoon, this town is situated 10 km away from the range of the Western Ghats on the South, called the Palani Hills. Kodaikanal a famous tourist township is situated and these hills, at a height of 2133 M. The Shanmuga River (consisting of Palar, Porundalar, Varadhamanadhi, Pachaiyar, Kallar and Kanar) flows from these hills and is 3KM away from Palani. Its length is 19 km.
      Palani’s temperature is 22 to 35 degree Celsius. Details of the Palani Hills The Palani Hills, famous in the Sangam Literature, has a height of 160 Meters. It has a path around it, admeasuring 2.84 km. The Hill has 689 steps to reach the top, and is surrounded by various medicinal herbs and trees like Sandalwood, Kadamba, etc., as also fields and groves. Important places around Palani Kodaikanal, the Queen of the south Indian Hills is situated near Palani and is an import tourist centre.
      Perianayagi Amman temple, Periyavudaiyar temple, Dams at Palani Porundalaar, the garden of herbs etc., situated in an area of about 7KM radius around Palani. The Kurinji Andavar temple at Kodaikkanal is a famous shrine. There is a temple for Lord Muruga at Poomparai. The Kurinji plant which blossoms once in 12 years is seen in this area.

Location of Palani: The Palani temple is considered to be the foremost among Murugan temples of Tamil Nadu. Thousands of devotees come and worship here throughout the year. Apart from the people of Tamil Nadu, those from Andra , Karnataka, Kerala, etc., also come from large numbers and worship here. So the temple here always has a festival look. Lord Gnanadandayudhapani, in the form of Guru, showers his grace on the devotees. This place is situated at a distance of 56 km from Dindigul, 472 km from Chennai, 114 km from Madurai, 103 km from Coimbatore, 126 km from Erode and 156 km from Trichy.
      Kodaikkanal is 64 km away on the South of Palani. There is train facility to reach Palani from all the above places, except Kodikkanal, which can be reached by bus or car. As the above towns have air travel facility, visitors can reach Palani by car after reaching the above town by air from elsewhere. 

Archaeological Details:
       The Palani Hill temple has been constructed on the top of a hill. It is said that the temple was built by a Chera King.
      On the outer walls of Lord Murugas shrine there are many edicts, made by some Pandya Kings, Sadayavarman sundarapandiyan, Sadayavarman veerapandian, Veera Nanjana wudaiyar , Mallikarjuna Devarayar II and others. The edict by Sundarapandiyan is the oldest of all. He was also Known as Kongupandiyan and was the famous king of the later Pandya Dynasty. He ascended the throne in 1251 AD. From the inscriptions on the wall, he comes to know that many kings have gifted lands and villages to the temple to enable the conduct of regular Poojas. In 1300 AD king Jatavarman sundrapandian gifted a village for carrying a special daily Pooja in his name. It is called Avani Vendha Raman Sandhi.

      In the front Mandapam of the temple there are many beautiful and artistic sculpture pieces live Siddhas in penance, parrot, peacock, deer, Karpaga vriksha (Divine Tree) and so on. There are also icons of Dhandayuthapani. His devotees, as also Yaali. At the entrance near the Raja Gopuram there are two nice sculpture pieces - a young lady carrying her child in the right arm and carrying a flower basket in the left another beautiful lady, the friend of the first standing in front of her. There are pillars with Yaali in the Paaravel Mandapam. In the Ardha Mandapam there are sculptures of young, good looking damsels. They create a sense of admiration in the minds of the visitors. The Tamils belive that Murugan resides where there is beauty. The Sanctum of Dhandayuthapani Swami is full of art-work. The ceiling here having the Kodungai design speaks of the talent of the sculptors. The balcony - like structure on the outer side of this area adds beauty. Such artistic work can be seen on the pillars of Thiruvavinankudi temple and Periyanayagiamman temple. In the Navaranga Mandapam here there are two pieces the divine dance of Lord Siva and (opposite to this ) the dance of Kali after her shedding her ego .

       In the temple walls of Periyanayaki Ammam Temple there is a beautiful ancient painting, revealing the art of singers, artists and dancers. It belongs to the Nayak period.

      In Palani area, old coins of ancient kingdoms were also found.

The Glory of Palani:
       The ancient Palani is a sacred place, praised by Saint Arunagirinathar in his Thiruppugazh and in Kandar Alankaram.
The ancientPalani is a sacred place, praised by Saint Arunagirinathar in his Thiruppugazh and in Kandar Alankaram. He says: Adored by the people of fourteen worlds, the Lord resides atop the Palani Hills. In the Thiruppugazh, he praised this place as Palani that is greater than Kasi and as Palani Hill that has many miracles. He also feels sorry for his failure to start early worship of Palani. In Kandar Alankaram he regrets that he missed reading about Palani, worshipping at the feet of Muruga Devotees, calling the divine name of Muruga, offering charities and sobbing with love and joy He doubts whether there is any salvation for him. Many Tamil saints and scholars have sung in praise of the Lord of Palani.
      For example: Arunagirinathar has sung 97 songs (Thiruppugazh): Dhandapani swamigal has given as Palani Thiruvayiram and Vijayagiri Velachinnavaiyam Palani Pillai Tamil. Palani Malai Vadivelar Sannadhimurai speaks of the discipline of Palani worship, the good results of this, the sacred ponds of Palani, and the Kavadi offered here. It points out the great benefits, as also the sure remedy for many ailments of the people. PLACES OF THEERTHAM Saravana poigai, near Thiruvavinangudi, and the Shanmuga River are the sacred water- sources of Palani, where the devotees bathe before worshipping at the Temple. TEMPLE TIMINGS The temple is open on all days from 6 AM to 8-30 PM. On Krithigai and other festival days it opens at 4 AM. Without any fee, all can have dharsan here.
Valli Sunai:

      In the Hill temple, Valli sunai considered to be the most ancient and holiest, was not properly cleaned for the past 15 Years. The Sunai was cleaned (for more than 10 days) and transformed into a cleaned Holy Sunai.

Saturday, February 4, 2017

The Merchant of Venice

Antonio, the merchant in The Merchant of Venice, secures a loan from Shylock for his friend Bassanio, who seeks to court Portia. Shylock, a Jewish moneylender, recalls past insults from Antonio and, instead of asking interest on the loan, asks instead—in what he calls a "merry sport"—that if the loan is not repaid, Antonio will owe a pound of his own flesh.

Bassanio sails to Belmont, where the wealthy heiress Portia is being courted by suitors from around the world. Her father's will requires that the successful suitor solve a riddle involving chests of gold, silver, and lead. Where others have failed, Bassanio succeeds by selecting the right chest. Portia marries Bassanio; her waiting woman, Nerissa, marries his friend Gratiano.

Shylock's daughter, Jessica, has eloped  with Bassanio's friend Lorenzo, taking her father’s money with her. Shylock is devastated. When Antonio cannot repay the loan, Shylock demands the pound of flesh. When the news reaches Belmont, Bassanio returns to Venice. Portia and Nerissa also travel to Venice, disguised as a lawyer and his clerk. Portia uses the law to defeat Shylock and rescue Antonio.