Tuesday, February 21, 2017

10 Rupee coin is valid



RBI dispels rumours of fake Rs.10 coins in circulation

It has been reported that some less-informed or uninformed persons who suspect the genuineness of such coins are creating doubts in the minds of ordinary people.

Dispelling rumours of fake Rs.10 coin in circulation, RBI long back has already asked people not to give credence to such canards and continue to accept these coins as legal tender in all their transactions without any hesitation. It has been reported that some less-informed or uninformed persons who suspect the genuineness of such coins are creating doubts in the minds of ordinary people including traders, shopkeepers, etc, impeding the circulation of these coins in certain pockets of the country causing avoidable confusion, RBI said in a statement.
“The Reserve Bank has advised members of the public not to give credence to such ill-informed notions and ignore them and continue to accept these coins as legal tender in all their transactions without any hesitation,” it said. According to RBI as coins remain in circulation for longer periods, it is quite possible that coins of different designs and even shapes are circulating at the same time.
One such change is introduction of ‘Rupee symbol’ in coins in July 2011, it said. An instance of this is the Rs.10 coin with rupee symbol and the same denomination coin without rupee symbol, it said, “Adding both of them are legal tender and equally good for transactions, though they may look a little different”.
“The Reserve Bank has advised members of the public not to give credence to such ill-informed notions and ignore them and continue to accept these coins as legal tender in all their transactions without any hesitation,” it said. According to RBI as coins remain in circulation for longer periods, it is quite possible that coins of different designs and even shapes are circulating at the same time.
One such change is introduction of ‘Rupee symbol’ in coins in July 2011, it said. An instance of this is the Rs.10 coin with rupee symbol and the same denomination coin without rupee symbol, it said,
It further said RBI puts into circulation coins minted by the Government of India and these have distinctive features. Coins in new denominations to meet transaction needs of public and coins in new designs to reflect various themes – economic, social and cultural – are introduced from time to time, it added.

Saturday, February 18, 2017

Anna Song



C.N. Annadurai
Born On: September 15, 1909
Born In: Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu
Died On: February 3, 1969
Career: Politician, Writer
Nationality: Indian
Popularly known as Anna or Arignar Anna, Conjeevaram Natarajan Annadurai was the first Dravidian and first non-Congress leader to become the Chief Minister of the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Despite being born in a middle class family, Annadurai rose to become a school teacher and journalist before switching into hard-core politics. After working for the Dravidian party, Dravidar Kazhagam, he gathered his supporters and gave birth to his own party, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). Such was the influence of Anna in the political world that a party was then launched in his name as Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) by M.G. Ramachandran in 1972 posthumously. With his election as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, Anna rose to extreme popularity amongst ordinary people. He is regarded as one of the charismatic and forceful political leaders of modern India. Besides, he gained fame as an acclaimed orator, Tamil and English litterateur, and a stage actor.

Early Life
C.N. Annadurai was born to Natarajan and Bangaru Ammal, in Conjeevaram (now called Kanchipuram) in Tamil Nadu. He was born in a middle-class weaver family belonging to Sengunta Mudaliar caste. He was brought up by his sister Rajamani Ammal. Annadurai attained his formal education from Pachaiyappa's High School in Chennai, but left his studies midway due to financial problems and worked as a clerk in Kanchipuram municipal office to help with the family finances. He later took admission in Pachaiyappa's College for his graduation. However, he was married off with Rani in 1930 at the age of 21 while he was still a student. In 1934, he completed his B.A. (Hons) degree and later achieved his M.A. degree in economics and politics from the same college. For a short period, he earned his living as an English teacher in Pachaiyappa's High school but left to join journalism and politics.

Entry into Politics
Annadurai was keen on joining politics. With his deep interest in working for the conditions of the poor and down-trodden, his ambition firmed as he was highly influenced by two Communist leaders, M. Singaravelu and C. Basudev. On his first meeting with Periyar E.V. Ramasami in 1934 at a youth conference at Tirupur in Coimbatore district, he was instantly attracted towards him. Even after his split with Periyar on the launch of his own party DMK in 1949, he continued to praise him in public as his one and only leader. He joined the Justice Party, which was formed in 1917 by non-Brahmin elites, in 1935. When he entered the party, the president was Periyar E.V. Ramasami. The party ran a magazine where Annadurai served as the sub-editor. The party was in power till 1937 after it was defeated by Indian National Congress. Thereafter, Annadurai became the editor of Viduthalai, which means freedom in English, and was even associated with a Tamil weekly paper "Kudi Arusu". In 1942, he began his own Tamil journal titled "Dravida Nadu". Periyar renamed the Justice Party as Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944 and bid adieu to contesting in the elections.

Establishment of DMK
During India's struggle for independence, the movement was dominated by Indian National Congress that was led by Brahmins. As such, Periyar feared that independent India would be ruled under the government of Brahmins and North Indians. With this, Periyar objected the move and declared August 15, 1947 as a day of mourning. As such, Periyar witnessed opposition from his supporters and saw that the cause of demand for independence from British rule was a national cause and not just of Aryan North. This triggered a cold war between Annadurai and Periyar. Further when Periyar refused to stand in the democratic elections, Annadurai walked off the meeting in 1948. Periyar's marriage to Maniammai, who was 40 years younger than him, caused the final rift between him and Annadurai, who, in turn, walked out of his party and gave birth to his own party known as Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) in 1949, in partnership with Periyar's nephew, E.V.K. Sampath. Initially DMK focused on urban centers and surrounding areas, but with the party's emphasis shifting on to urban lower, lower middle, working classes, students, Dalits, and lower castes, DMK gained rapid recognition and immense support.

Dravida Nadu
While working for "Dravida Nadu" under Periyar at the time of Dravida Kazhagam, Annadurai supported the former for forming an independent state under the name Dravida Nadu. This thought stayed alive during the initial days of DMK as well. Sampath, who had left Periyar and joined Annadurai, still opposed the fact and considered this demand an unrealistic goal. Later, when Annadurai accepted film stars in his party, Sampath suffered differences between him and other leaders supporting the Dravida Nadu, and hence, left DMK to form his own party, the Tamil Nationalist Party in 1961. But when the Indian government separated Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam speaking regions from Madras Presidency, Annadurai and his party changed the call for Dravida Nadu into independent Tamil Nadu for Tamil speaking regions. However, when the Sixteenth Amendment was initialized that banned any party from contesting in elections; Annadurai was one of the members present in the Parliament of India but could not stop from the amendment being passed.

Protests
Apart from standing for the formation of a separate Tamil-speaking region, Annadurai was actively involved with other protests throughout his political career. When Motilal Nehru recommended Hindi for use as an official language in 1928, people and politicians of Tamil Nadu strongly opposed considering that they would be regarded as second-class citizens, since Hindi was major language of North Indians. This was just the beginning as the Congress party headed by C. Rajagopalachari in Madras Presidency suggested the use of Hindi as a compulsory language in schools in 1938. This was highly objected by Tamil leaders, including Annadurai who, along with poet Bharathidasan, held demonstrations against the cause. He even participated in the first Anti-Hindi imposition conference that was held in Kanchipuram on February 27, 1938. With no positive response and immense opposition, the Madras Presidency withdrew from the cause in 1940.

In 1950, when India became a republic, the constitution declared Hindi language to gain official status after 15 years in 1965. This was, as expected, not accepted by the Tamils. As such, Annadurai organized an open-air conference against Hindi imposition at Kodambakkam in Chennai in August 1960. With the rise in the opposition, Jawaharlal Nehru ensured that English would be the official language of India, as long as non-Hindi speaking people wish. However, when no amendment was made in the constitution in 1965, Annadurai declared 26th January, 1955, the 15th Republic Day of India, as the day of mourning. He replaced the protest slogans with "Down with Hindi; Long live the Republic". Though the protest initially broke out in Madurai, it spread throughout the state within days. With violence increasing to its height, Annadurai asked the students to call off the protest, but DMK leaders like Karunanidhi continued the violence. Annadurai was even arrested for inducing the agitation. Though DMK was not personally responsible for instigating the agitation, it was due to this that DMK won the elections in 1967 with Annadurai becoming the Chief Minister of Madras State.

Tenure as a Chief Minister
In 1967 elections, the opposition party won nine states over Congress, but Madras was the only state where a single non-Congress party attained majority. Annadurai became the Chief Minister of Madras in February 1967 and legalized self-respect marriages wherein one did not require a Brahmin to preside with the marriage ceremony. Self-respect marriage was an idea conceptualized by Periyar, who considered conventional marriages as an excuse for bribing dowry. It was during Annadurai's tenure as the Chief Minister that the Madras State was renamed as Tamil Nadu. He even introduced the two language policy against the three language formula prevailing in the neighboring states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala. He organized the Second World Tamil Conference on January 3, 1968. To mark this conference, the government released a commemorative stamp but it contained Hindi while Annadurai insisted on printing Tamil. He issued an order to remove all pictures of gods and religious symbols from public offices and buildings. On his visit to Yale University in April-May 1968, he was awarded with the Chubb Fellowship and became the first non-American to receive this honor. Later in the same year, he was conferred upon with an honorary doctorate from Annamalai University.

Literary Career
Apart from his political career, Annadurai was very much involved into writing and filming as well. Talking about his literary career, he was regarded as one of the best Tamil orators during his time. With his spoken and written language, he managed to develop a unique style. He penned several novels, short stories, and plays that revolved around politics. While working for Dravidar Kazhagam, he acted in some of his own plays. His notable works include Annavin Sattasabai Sorpolivukal (Anna's speeches at the state legislative, 1960), Ilatchiya varalaru (History of Principles, 1948), Valkkaip puyal (Storm of life, 1948), Rankon rata (Radha from Rangon), Kambarasam, Kapothipura kathal (Love in the city of Blind), Parvathy B.A., Kalinga Rani (Queen of Kalinga), and Pavayin payanam (Travels of a young lady).

Film Career
Annadurai wrote for movies also. His first movie was 1948 "Nallathambi" (Good Brother) starring N.S. Krishnan revolving around cooperative farming and abolition of zamindari system. He earned Rs. 12,000 from this project, a large amount at that time. His novels "Velaikaari" (Servant Maid, 1949) and "Or Iravu" were culminated into movies. His career in films proved to be a boon for him as he was supported by several stage and cine stars, such as D.V. Narayanaswamy, K.R. Ramasamy, N.S. Krishnan, S.S. Rajendran, Sivaji Ganesan, and M.G. Ramachandran. His other works that were converted into movies by the same name are Panathottam (1963), Valiba virundhu (1967), Kumarikottam (1971), Rajapart Rangadurai (1973), Needhi devan mayakkam (1982).

Death
Annadurai served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for just two years as he died on February 3, 1969. Though he was suffering from cancer, he managed to keep himself in a healthy condition. It was his tobacco chewing habit that had led to the worsening of his condition. His funeral was attended by a recorded 15 million people, the highest till date as recorded in The Guinness Book of Records. His remains were buried in the northern end of Marina Beach, now known as Anna Square.

Legacy
With the split of DMK in 1972 by actor M.G. Ramachandran, the rebel fragment formed another party and renamed it as All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK). A residential neighborhood in Chennai is named after Annadurai and is called Anna Nagar. The Anna University, offering high education in engineering, technology, and applied sciences, founded in 1978 was also named after Annadurai. The current head office of DMK, built in 1987, was a tribute to Annadurai with the name Anna Arivalayam. The previously known Mount Road, a major road in Chennai, was renamed as Anna Salai in his honor and a statue was also set up there. Annadurai was listed as one of the "Top 100 people who shaped India by thought, action, art, culture, and spirit" by India Today magazine. Anna Centenary Library was established in Chennai in 2010 as a tribute to Annadurai.

Distinguished Works
Komalathin Kobam, 1939
Kalingarani, 1942
Parvathi B.A, 1943
Chandrodhayam, 1943
Sivaji kanda indhu samrajyam, 1945
Velaikaari, 1946
Kumari kottam, 1946
Nallathambi, 1948
Or iravu, 1948
Sorgavasal, 1953
Kumari Surya, 1955
Thazhumbukal, 1965
Inba oli, 1970

Notable Films
Nallathambi, 1949
Velaikaari, 1949
Or Iravu, 1951
Rangoon Radha, 1956
Panathottam, 1963)
Valiba virundhu, 1967
Kumarikottam, 1971
Rajapart Rangadurai, 1973
Needhi devan mayakkam, 1982

Timeline
1909: Was born in Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu
1930: Married Rani
1934: Completed bachelor's degree from Pachaiyappa's College, Chennai
1935: Joined Justice Party
1938: Participated in the first Anti-Hindi imposition conference in Kanchipuram
1944: Justice Party was renamed as Dravidar Kazhagam
1948: Made first movie "Nallathambi"
1949: Founded Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)
1962: Elected to Rajya Sabha
1965: Opposed against Hindi being declared as the official language
1967: Elected as the Chief Minister of Madras Presidency
1968: Received Chubb Fellowship from Yale University
1969: Madras state was renamed as Tamil Nadu
1969: Died on February 3 in Chennai aged 59
1972: ADMK (Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam) was formed
1978: Anna University was founded in his honor
1987: DMK's head office Anna Arivalayam was built
2010: Anna Centenary Library was established in Chennai



Thursday, February 16, 2017

Thirukkural 1080

 திருக்குறள் 1080
எற்றிற் குரியர் கயவரொன் றுற்றக்கால்
விற்றற் குரியர் விரைந்து.

பொருள்:
ஒரு துன்பம் வரும்போது அதிலிருந்து தப்பித்துக் கொள்ள, தம்மையே பிறரிடம் விற்றுவிடுகிற தகுதிதான் கயவர்களுக்குரிய தகுதியாகும்.

Transliteration:
Etrir Kuriyar Kayavarondru Utrakkaal Vitrarku Uriyar Viraindhu

Translation:
For what is base man fit, if griefs assail? Himself to offer, there and then, for sale!

Meaning in English:

The base will hasten to sell themselves as soon as a calamity has befallen them. For what else are they fitted?

Tuesday, February 14, 2017

Thirukkural 740

ஆங்கமை வெய்தியக் கண்ணும் பயமின்றே
வேந்தமை வில்லாத நாடு.

--திருக்குறள் 740 அதிகாரம் நாடு

மு. வரதராசன் உரை:
நல்ல அரசன் பொருந்தாத நாடு, மேற்சொன்ன நன்மைகள் எல்லாம் அமைந்திருந்த போதிலும் அவற்றால் பயன் இல்லாமற் போகும்.

மு. கருணாநிதி உரை:
நல்ல அரசு அமையாத நாட்டில் எல்லாவித வளங்களும் இருந்தாலும் எந்தப் பயனும் இல்லாமற் போகும்.

சாலமன் பாப்பையா உரை:
மேலே சொல்லப்பட்ட எல்லாம் இருந்தாலும் குடிமக்கள் மீது அன்பு இல்லாத அரசு அமைந்துவிட்டால் அதனால் ஒரு நன்மையும் இல்லை.

மணக்குடவர் உரை:
மேற்கூறியவற்றால் எல்லாம் அமைந்ததாயினும் பயனில்லையாம்; வேந்தனது அமைதியை உடைத்தல்லாத நாடு. இதுநாட்டுக்கு அரசனும் பண்புடையனாகல் வேண்டுமென்றது.

பரிமேலழகர் உரை:
வேந்து அமைவு இல்லாத நாடு - வேந்தனோடு மேவுதல் இல்லாத நாடு; ஆங்கு அமைவு எய்தியக் கண்ணும் பயம் இன்றே - மேற்சொல்லிய குணங்கள் எல்லாவற்றினும் நிறைந்திருந்ததாயினும், அவற்றால் பயனுடைத்தன்று. (வேந்து அமைவு எனவே, குடிகள் அவன்மாட்டு அன்புடையராதலும்,அவன்தான் இவர்மாட்டு அருளுடையனாதலும் அடங்கின. அவைஇல்வழி வாழ்வோர் இன்மையின், அவற்றால் பயனின்றாயிற்று. இவைஇரண்டு பாட்டானும் அதன் குற்றம் கூறப்பட்டது).

Translation:
Though blest with all these varied gifts' increase,
A land gains nought that is not with its king at peace.

Explanation:

Although in possession of all the above mentioned excellences, these are indeed of no use to a country, in the absence of harmony between the sovereign and the subjects.

Monday, February 13, 2017

Thirukkural 700

குறள் 700:
பழையம் எனக்கருதிப் பண்பல்ல செய்யும்
கெழுதகைமை கேடு தரும்.

கலைஞர் மு.கருணாநிதி உரை:
நெடுங்காலமாக நெருங்கிப் பழகுகிற காரணத்தினாலேயே தகாத செயல்களைச் செய்திட உரிமை எடுத்துக்கொள்வது கேடாகவே முடியும்.

மு.வரதராசனார் உரை:
யாம் அரசர்க்கு பழைமையானவராய் உள்ளோம் எனக்கருதித் தகுதி அல்லாதவற்றைச் செய்யும் உரிமை கேட்டைத்தரும்.

சாலமன் பாப்பையா உரை:
ஆட்சியாளருடன் நமக்கு நீண்ட நாள் பழக்கம் உண்டு என்று எண்ணித் தீய செயல்களைச் செய்யும் மனஉரிமை ஒருவருக்குக் கெடுதியையே தரும்.

பரிமேலழகர் உரை:
பழையம் எனக்கருதிப் பண்பு அல்ல செய்யும் கெழுதகைமை - அரசனுக்கு யாம் பழையம் எனக் கருதித் தமக்கு இயல்பு அல்லாதவற்றைச் செய்யும் உரிமை; கேடு தரும் - அமைச்சர்க்குக் கேட்டினைப் பயக்கும். (அவன் பொறாது செறும் பொழுதின், அப்பழைமை நோக்கிக் கண்ணோடாது உயிரை வெளவுதலான், அவன் வேண்டாதன செய்தற்கு ஏதுவாய கெழுதகைமை கேடு தரும் என்றார். இவை மூன்று பாட்டானும், பொறுப்பர் என்று அரசர் வெறுப்பன செய்யற்க என்பது கூறப்பட்டது.).

மணக்குடவர் உரை:
யாம் பழைமையுடையோ மென்று கருதி இயல்பல்லாதனவற்றைச் செய்யும் நட்பின்தகைமை தமக்குக் கேட்டைத்தரும் இது பின் பகையானவற்றைத் தவிரல் வேண்டும்மென்றது.

Translation:
Who think 'We're ancient friends' and do unseemly things;
To these familiarities sure ruin brings.

Explanation:

The (foolish) claim with which a minister does unbecoming acts because of his (long) familiarity (with the king) will ensure his ruin.

Thirukkural 699

குறள் 699:
கொளப்பட்டேம் என்றெண்ணிக் கொள்ளாத செய்யார்
துளக்கற்ற காட்சி யவர்.

கலைஞர் மு.கருணாநிதி உரை:
ஆட்சியால் நாம் ஏற்றுக் கொள்ளப்பட்டவராயிற்றே என்ற துணிவில், ஏற்றுகொள்ள முடியாத காரியங்களைத் தெளிந்த அறிவுடையவர்கள் செய்ய மாட்டார்கள்.

மு.வரதராசனார் உரை:
அசைவற்ற தெளிந்த அறிவினை உடையவர் யாம் அரசரால் விரும்பப்பட்டோம் என்று எண்ணி அவர் விரும்பாதவற்றைச் செய்யமாட்டார்.

சாலமன் பாப்பையா உரை:
சலனம் அற்ற அறிவை உடையவர்கள், தாம் ஆட்சியாளரால் மிகவும் மரியாதைக்கு உரியவர்கள் என்று எண்ணி, ஆட்சியாளர் விரும்பாதவற்றைச் செய்யமாட்டார்.

பரிமேலழகர் உரை:
கொளப்பட்டேம் என்று எண்ணிக் கொள்ளாத செய்யார் - அரசனால் யாம்நன்கு மதிக்கப்பட்டேம் என்று கருதி அவன் விரும்பாதவற்றைச் செய்யார்; துளக்கு அற்ற காட்சியவர் - நிலைபெற்ற அறிவினையுடையார். (கொள்ளாதன செய்து அழிவு எய்துவார் கொளப்பாட்டிற்குப்பின் தம்மை வேறொருவராகக் கருதுவர் ஆகலின், முன்னையராகவே கருதி அஞ்சியொழுகுவாரைத் 'துளக்கு அற்ற காட்சியவர்' என்றார்).

மணக்குடவர் உரை:
யாம் அரசனாலே கைக்கொள்ளப்பட்டோமென்று நினைத்து அவன் நெஞ்சிற் கொள்ளாதன செய்யார், அசைவற்ற தௌ¤வுடையார். இஃது அரசன் நெஞ்சிற்குப் பொருந்தினவை செய்ய வேண்டுமென்றது.

Translation:
'We've gained his grace, boots nought what graceless acts we do',
So deem not sages who the changeless vision view.

Explanation:

Those whose judgement is firm will not do what is disagreeable (to the sovereign) saying (within themselves) "We are esteemed by the king".

Sunday, February 12, 2017

Tirukkural 754

அறன்ஈனும் இன்பமும் ஈனும் திறனறிந்து
தீதின்றி வந்த பொருள்.

-குறள்  754

திருவள்ளுவரின் திருக்குறள், பொருட்பால், அதிகாரம்: பொருள்செயல்வகை
Chapter: Way of Accumulating Wealth

விளக்கம்:
சேர்க்கும் திறம் அறிந்து தீமை ஒன்றும் இல்லாமல், சேர்க்கப் பட்டுவந்த பொருள் ஒருவனுக்கு அறத்தையும் இன்பத்தையும் கொடுக்கும்.

அதாவது,

நேரிய வழி அறிந்து  தீமை ஏதும் செய்யாமல் சம்பாதிக்கப்பட்ட பணம் அறத்தையும் இன்பத்தையும் தரும்.

English Couplet 754:
Their wealth, who blameless means can use aright,
Is source of virtue and of choice delight.

Couplet Explanation:
The wealth acquired with a knowledge of the proper means and without foul practices will yield virtue and happiness.

Transliteration (Tamil to English):
aran-eenum inpamum eenum thiRanaRindhu

theedhindri vandha poruL